Universal Model – everyone may have a disability. We all fit somewhere on the continuum of disability. Non-stereotyping.
I enjoyed reading the whole Kaplan article, she mentions stereotypes a few times which got me thinking how the models often lead to stereotypes of people with disabilities.
Medical Model – sick role = excused from certain activities (Kaplan, 2000), currently somewhat scapegoated as fraudsters have permeated benefit-related aspects. Stereotypes from victim to criminal to sponger. In this model a disabled person is expected to rely on medical support to ‘improve’ or be ‘cured’.
Rehabilitation Model (related to Medical Model) – disabilities are/may be ameliorated by professional supports. Popularised by WWII war veterans and currently Paralympians (less publicised but related Special Olympians) – 2 heroic stereotypes I wouldn’t want to feel under pressure to emulate when I might just prefer to live my unremarkable life.
Social Model – States the environment is the disabling factor. Doesn’t stereotype?
Charity Model – charity case, back to victim stereotype, someone who needs help…
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